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1. GUIDED TOUR

A basic 10 minute guided tour that shows the major features of the database is available. Please CLICK here for more.

2. INTRODUCTION

2.1 INTRODUCTION

North American Immigrant Letters, Diaries and Oral Histories provides sophisticated searching across large numbers of primary documents, as well as table of contents access to a wide array of primary sources.

For novices who wish to get quick access to key documents, we recommend using the Browse Tables and the Simple Search tools.

For scholars who wish to conduct in-depth searches we recommend using the Advanced Search tools.  The search value of some of the fields in the database will not become apparent until more documents are added.

2.2 UNDERSTANDING THE STRUCTURE OF THE DATABASE

There are three basic ways to use the database.

  • Browse Tables -- Use these to see what's contained in the database. This is the best way to check whether an author, a source, a date is included. It's also the best way to examine what personal or historical events are in the database. To use this tool, simply click on the appropriate table of contents button on the navigation bar.
  • Find Tools -- The "FIND" tools let you search for specific authors or specific works in the database. Find Authors returns a list of all authors that match your specific criteria. Find Sources returns a list of all sources (works and manuscripts) in the database. The difference between the "FIND" tools and the "SEARCH" tools (explained next) is in the results they give. The "FIND" tools do not return documents, but rather lists of sources and authors. Note the difference between a source (a collection of documents) and the documents themselves (items within a source).
  • Search Tools -- The "SEARCH" tools let you analyze words and documents that meet your search criteria. The "SEARCH" tools return documents or bibliographic citations or both. In this database a document is defined as a month of diary entries, or a letter, or editorial matter.

2.3 SEARCH NAVIGATION BAR

The Search tools are divided into four separate categories, all of which search the texts in the database and return documents:

  • Simple Search - for novice users or those wishing to do a quick search. It provides basic searching.
  • Diaries Search - a moderate number of fields, restricted to diaries.
  • Letter Search - specific field searching for letters only.
  • Advanced Search - all fields, except specific letter fields.

The orange color indicates which search tool you are currently using. As you move from tool to tool, the orange color moves to indicate which tool you've selected. You may click on the brown parts of the Navigation bar to move to the appropriate tool.

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2.4 BROWSE TABLE NAVIGATION BAR

The Browse Tables Navigation bar lets you move around the Browse Tables tools. It works in the same way as the Search Tool bar. When using these tools, the Browse Tables are expanded and the Full Text Searches are collapsed. You can toggle between the two by clicking Browse Tables or Full-Text Search.

The Browse Tables are divided into six separate categories, all of which provide quick access to specific documents within the database.

        Browse Table

  • Authors - a list of every major author in the database.
  • Sources - a complete list of every source (work or manuscripts) in the database.
  • Year - every letter and document organized by year.
  • Place - A list of Places where letters or diaries have been written, sent or discussed.
  • Personal Events - a list of key life events in the life of a person, with all documents pertaining to each event.
  • Historical Events - a list of key events in history, with all documents pertaining to each event.

        Find

  • Sources - The ability to search the database for a particular source.
  • Authors - Search for Authors that are in the Database by a criteria.
  • Full Text Search - A Simple search for text in the database.
  • Help - The Help for looking for help on a topic.

2.5 NOTES ON MARK-UP CONVENTIONS

Materials in the database have been transcribed using original spellings and grammar. In some documents spelling is inconsistent, even within a sentence. For more information on mark-up conventions, contact the Editor.

 

2.6 ABOUT THE SEARCH SOFTWARE

PhiloLogic, a suite of software developed by the ARTFL Project at the University of Chicago in collaboration with The University of Chicago Library's Electronic Text Services, provides sophisticated searching of a wide variety of large encoded databases on the World Wide Web. It is an easy to use, yet powerful, full-text search, retrieval, and reporting system for large multimedia databases (texts, images, sound) with the ability to handle complex text structures with extensive indexed metadata.


PhiloLogic in its simplest form serves as a document retrieval or look up mechanism whereby users can search a relational database to retrieve given documents and, in some implementations, portions of texts such as acts, scenes, articles, or head-words. This same document retrieval mechanism serves as the basis for defining a corpus in a full-text search. One can, for example, either retrieve all documents in a database written by women from 1935 through 1945 or one can search for words or phrases within database which fit those criteria. The typical PhiloLogic search is broken down into five distinct stages: 1) defining a corpus (i.e. limiting a search), 2) word expansion, 3) word index searching, 4) text extraction, and 5) link resolution and formatting (e.g., SGML to HTML conversion). In other words, after defining a corpus (or one may search an entire database), one can execute a single term, phrase or proximity search. By looking up indices of the word(s) in a relational database, PhiloLogic extracts blocks of text containing the search term(s) with links to larger blocks of text. These extracts are formatted to display on a Web browser and sometimes include links to images, sound recordings, other texts, or even other databases.


In addition to simple word and phrase searches, users can perform more sophisticated searches by using extended UNIX-style regular expressions for complex wildcard searching and, in some implementations, morphological and orthographic expansion. All of these mechanisms to expand words can be combined using Boolean operators such as OR (the vertical bar "|") and AND (a space) within a variety of searching contexts.


Its functions were originally designed for scholarly research in databases of literary, religious, philosophical, and historical collections of texts as well as important historical encyclopedias and dictionaries. PhiloLogic handles notes so as not to interfere with phrase searching. Users can easily search words with diacritics (either by specifying accents or ignoring them by typing in uppercase) and non-Romanized scripts. At present there are some fifty databases on the Web under PhiloLogic containing languages such as ancient Greek, Latin, Hindi, and Urdu as well as nearly all Western European languages. PhiloLogic can also be set up to recognize or ignore manuscript notations such as different brackets, which can indicate spurious text or editorial emendations. Because the software recognizes typical text structures as real data objects, it understands units, such as words, sentences, paragraphs, sections, and pages, permitting very flexible searching and retrieval of these textual objects. Other full-text engines on the market search for strings of characters. Rather than searching for two words within the same sentence or paragraph (intellectual units), other engines must search for two words within a certain number of characters regardless of sentence or paragraph. With PhiloLogic scholars always know where they are in a given text since pagination can be displayed along side other objects. Such a high degree of indexing can lead to decreases in speed, PhiloLogic indexing has been maximized such that it is still incredibly fast on the Web.


For more information on PhiloLogic, contact Catherine Mardikes, ETS Coordinator, The University of Chicago Library.

 

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3. FIND AUTHOR AND FIND SOURCES

3.1 FIND SOURCES

The Find Sources tool lets you find all the original works in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find all the sources published by the Wisconsin State Historical Society or see whether a particular edition is included.

Practical Example: Find all sources that include slavery as a subject.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "slavery" into the Subject field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Sources see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

3.2 FIND AUTHORS

The Find Authors tool lets you find authors in the database that match your specific criteria. For example, you can find all the authors in the database that were born between 1850 and 1870.

Practical Example: Find all doctors who are parents.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Physician" into the Occupation field.
  • Enter "1-15" into the Number of Children field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: For a detailed discussion of the fields in Find Authors see the section on Fields and their Descriptions below.

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4. SEARCHING

4.1 SEARCH OVERVIEW

There are two basic kinds of searching in the database.

  • Full-Text Searching enables you to do keyword searching for occurrences of words or phrases in the database.
  • Bibliographic Searching allows you to create a set of documents for subsequent full-text searching. Bibliographic searching is when you use descriptive fields to search.

The conventions used in each kind of searching are slightly different as shown below.

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4.2 FULL-TEXT SEARCHING

4.2.1 Full-Text Searching

Full-Text Searching is when you search for specific words or phrases that occur in the texts themselves.

PhiloLogic supports wildcard characters and Boolean (logical) operators, which are modeled on UNIX regular expressions to perform "pattern matching" in full-text searching. Pattern matching allows identification of a large number of words corresponding to a defined pattern. Wildcard characters can be useful, for example, in identifying cognates made obscure by affixes and vowel weakening, inconsistencies due to irregular orthography, and variations on account of word inflection as well as for discovering potential emendations for uncertain readings. The most commonly used regular expression operators (wildcard and Boolean) are listed below.

4.2.2 Wildcard Characters in Full-Text Searching

. (period):

matches any single character (e.g., gentlem.n will retrieve gentleman and gentlemen).

* (asterisk):

matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the beginning of a word (e.g., cigar* will match cigar, cigars, cigarette, etc.).

* (asterisk):

matches any string of characters, anchoring the match at the end of a word (e.g., *habit will retrieve habit, cohabit, and inhabit), or in the middle (e.g., c.*eers matches compeers, cheers, and careers).

.? (period question mark):

matches the characters entered or the characters entered plus one more character in place of the question mark (e.g., hono.?r matches both honor and honour and cat.? matches cat and cats, but not cathedral, Catherine, etc.).

[a-z] (brackets):

matches a single character found in the specified range (e.g., [c-f]at will match cat, dat, eat, and fat) or any letters within the brackets (e.g., civili[zs]e will match both civilize and civilise).

E (capital letter):

matches all accented and non-accented forms (e.g., to search navet regardless of accents type naIvetE).

Note: If you are using wildcard characters and would like to see a full list of the words matching your search-term, then run your search as a Frequency by Author search. The results page of a Frequency by Author search lists all the terms found in the database that match your search-term.

 

4.2.3 Wildcards and Boolean Operators in Full-Text Searching

  • The vertical line ( | ) is the OR operator (e.g., avarice|greed or holy ghost|spirit).
  • Space: serves as the AND operator in sentence and paragraph Proximity Searching (e.g., church state retrieve all cases where church and state appear in the same specified context; this is not the case in phrase searching).
  • These expressions can be combined for more sophisticated searches; for example, searching
    old|aged|ancient m.n|fellow*
    finds any of the three adjectives together with the nouns man or fellow in the singular or plural.

4.2.4 Punctuation and Full-Text Searching

  • Hyphens: Hypens act as word separators. Thus, one should treat hyphenated expressions as separate words excluding the hyphen (e.g., if searching for all-powerful, type in all powerful).
  • Apostrophes: One must include apostrophes when searching words with apostrophes in them (e.g., only by typing God's will one find "God's"). In this database apostrophes do not act as word separators. Therefore contractions and elisions must be entered without spaces before or after the apostrophe.
  • Ampersands: The ampersand (&) is not a searchable character. Avoid Phrase Searches where an ampersand may be used as a conjunction and realize that &c must be entered as simply c.

4.2.5 Selecting a Search Option

PhiloLogic at this time offers two kinds of searches: "Single Term and Phrase Search," which is set up as the default, and "Proximity Searching in the Same Sentence or Paragraph." One may select and deselect a search option by clicking on the "radio" buttons.

For a fuller discussion see the PhiloLogic User Manual.

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4.3 FIELD SEARCHING

4.3.1 Searching in Specific Fields

When entering search terms in bibliographic fields, as opposed to the full text search box, use the following Boolean operators: uppercase AND, OR, and NOT. One can use a NOT operator by itself (e.g., in the Type field enter: NOT editorial). It must be the first term in the box with no spaces preceding and it cannot be used with other Boolean operators.

4.3.2 Advanced Field Searching with Regular Expression Operators

As in full text searching, one can use regular expression operators for more specialized searching. The caret sign (^) at the beginning of a word anchors the match at the beginning of the entry (e.g., ^child will find the personal event "Childbirth," but not "Adoption of Child). One can also use the verticle line (|) as a Boolean operator OR. With this operator one can exclude two terms from one's search (e.g., NOT adams|burr).

4.3.3 Punctuation and Spacing in Fielded Searching

When entering terms, punctuation and spacing must match exactly that in the fields. The following marks of punctuation produce a "Nothing found" message: ampersand (&), parentheses, question mark, and double quotes (""). If necessary for searching, replace the mark of punctuation with a period, which stand for any single character.

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5. FIELDS AND THEIR DESCRIPTIONS

5.1 LIST OF ALL FIELDS THAT CAN BE SEARCHED

Here is a summary table of all fields in the database, showing which tool they can be found on. Detailed descriptions can be found below.

 

  FIELD SOURCE AUTHOR SIMPLE ADVANCED
1 Age When Writing       x
2 Author Gender   x   x
3 Author x x x x
4 Place of Birth   x   x
5 Cultural Heritage   x   x
6 Place of Death   x   x
7 Document Type     x x
8 Editor or Translator x      
9 Historical Events       x
10 Journal x     x
11 Marital Status       x
12 Nationality   x   x
13 Occupation in Native Country   x   x
14 Occupation in North America   x   x
15 Organizational Affiliations   x   x
16 Parental Status       x
17 Personal Events       x
18 Point of Departure   x   x
19 Point of Entry   x   x
20 Publisher x      
21 Race   x   x
22 Record Number       x
23 Religion   x   x
24 Source Title       x
25 Source Type x      
26 Stayed in North America   x    
27 Subject Headings     x x
28 Subject Headings (Source) x      
29 Title (Source) x      
30 Where Sent       x
31 Where Written       x
32 Year of Birth   x    
33 Year of Death   x    
34 Year of Immigration   x   x
35 Year of Publication x      
36 Year Written     x x

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5.2 FIELD DESCRIPTIONS WITH SAMPLE SEARCHES

5.2.1 Age When Writing

Description: This field contains the author's age at the time a document was written.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to materials written by immigrants at a specific time in their lives. It is particularly useful for examining changing perspectives over time, to explore differences in the vocabulary and preoccupations of the young and the old. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find writings that discuss farms and are authored by persons aged 40-60.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "farm*" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Enter "40-60" into the Age When Writing field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all writings that meet the criteria.

Note: Enter "9999" into the Age When Writing field to search for occurrences of letters, diaries, chapters or oral histories where the author's age is not known.

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5.2.2 Author Gender

Description: This field is used to describe the gender of an author.

How to use this field: Use this field to find either the male or female perspective on a subject by selecting M, F, or ALL. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find womens views on storms.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "storms" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Select "F" from the Gender drop-down box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all writings that meet the criteria.

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5.2.3 Author

Description: This field contains the name of the author of a letter or diary entry. It includes variant names, such as maiden name, professional pen name, aliases, other married names and nicknames. The same official form of the name is used for display of all occurrences of that name, regardless of the form the author used at the time of writing.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze word usage or materials by a single author or authors. If you want to see whether an author is included in the database click on Browse Table: Authors on the navigation bar. Names are entered surname, first name, initial, including variant names. This is a mandatory field. It is used in all the Find and Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all documents by Mrs. Yuenren Chao.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Chao, Mrs. Yuenren" into the Author field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.

Practical Example: Find all documents by Mrs. Yuenren Chao in which she uses the word "love".

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "love" into the Search word or phrase field.
  • Enter "Chao, Mrs. Yuenren" into the Author field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
Note: To see a list of available Author terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Author field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.4 Cultural Heritage

Description: This field describes the original nationality of an immigrant.

How to use this field: This field is used to find documents by an author from a particular country or part of the world. It is also used to find documents by people of a particular cultural background such as Jewish or a continental identity such as Asian. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all Polish authors.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Polish" into the Cultural Heritage field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

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5.2.5 Document Type

Description: This field indicates the type of document. Every item in the database has been categorized as Chapter, Cartoon, Emigrant Guide, Letter, Diary, Oral History, or Editorial. Editorial matter includes prefatory matter from the original sources, appendices and other commentary. Chapter is used for memoir or autobiographical types of materials and follows the same chapter breaks as the original text.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to a specific type of document. It is used in the Simple Search and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of Poland in introductory matter.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Poland" into the Search word or phrase field.
  • Select "Editorial" from the Document Type drop-down box.
  • Click on the Search button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Practical Example: Find all cartoons that discuss prejudice.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "prejudice" into the Search word or phrase field.
  • Select "cartoon" from the Document Type drop-down box.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.
  • You will see a list of your results, including the cartoon images. Click on the thumbnail images to see the larger picture.

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5.2.6 Editor or Translator

Description: This field contains the name of the compiler, editor, translator or author of the source title. The name is entered surname, first name, followed by a comma, and the abbreviation of the function filled (i.e. ed., comp., tr., introd., notes) if not the author.

How to use this field: Use this field to find works translated or edited by specific individuals. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources edited by Frederic L. Paxson.

  • Click Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Paxson" into the Editor or Translator field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

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5.2.7 Historical Events

Description: This field allows you to search the controlled vocabulary of Historical Events. It is a controlled field with a special vocabulary.

How to use this field: This field can be used to restrict a search to a specific historical event or events. It is used in the Advanced Search field.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of World War I as a subject.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "World War I, 1914-1918" into the Historical Events field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.
Note: To see a list of available Historical Events terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Historical Events field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.8 Journal

Description: Some of our sources are part of larger sources or journals, the name of which are indicated in this field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find the sources or documents which appear in a particular journal or collection. You can also find the cartoon collections based on Journal using this field. It is used in the Find Sources and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all documents which have appeared in the Wisconsin Historical Society Proceedings.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Wisconsin" into the Journal field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.
Note: To see a list of available Journal terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Journal field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.9 Marital Status When Writing

Description: This field indicates whether a person was married or single when he or she was writing.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to materials written by married men or women or single men or women. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Compare views on children from single people.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Child*" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Enter "single" into the Marital Status field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.10 Nationality

Description: This field enables you to find materials written by individuals of a particular nationality. This field is primarily "American" or "Canadian". However, not all immigrants stayed in North America and some have citizenship in other countries.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to all materials written by people of a particular nationality. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find Chapters written by Mexicans.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Mexican" into the Nationality field.
  • Select "Chapter" from the Document Type drop-down box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.11 Occupation in Native Country (including Family)

Description: This field describes the author's or authors family occupation prior to immigration, if any. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find documents written by a person in a particular occupation - for example, all Teachers. All occupations in a person's life prior to immigration are entered. This is not tied to when a person is writing. An individual may have several occupations throughout his or her life. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find Chapters written by physicians or children of physicians.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "physician" into the Occupation field.
  • Select "Chapter" from the Document Type field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Occupation terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Occupation field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.12 Occupation in North America

Description: This field describes the author's occupation after coming to North America.

How to use this field: Use this field to find documents written by a person in a particular occupation - for example, all Teachers. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Using both Occupation fields find out how many farmers became miners.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "farmer" into the Occupation in Native Country field.
  • Enter "miner" into the Occupation in North America field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.
Note: To see a list of available Occupation terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Occupation field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.13 Organizational Affiliations

Description: This field describes what organizations an author is involved with in America. It includes labor organizations, philanthropic associations, etc.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all documents by authors involved with a particular organization. Note that entering one key word from the organization's title into the Organizational Affiliations field is enough to give you results. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find authors involved in the International Ladies Garment Workers Union.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "garment" into the Organizational Affiliations field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.14 Parental Status When Writing

Description: This field indicates whether a person had children at the time of writing. Possible parental status types are: Mother, Father, Childless, Not Applicable, or Not Indicated.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to materials written by parents. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Compare fathers' views on schooling.

  • Click Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "school*" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Select "father" from the Parental Status field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.15 Personal Events

Description: This is a controlled field that describes key events in a persons life.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to documents pertaining to a key event, such as childbirth or the death of a spouse or household moves. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all references to the word "free" in documents that have "Death of child" as a personal event.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "free" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Enter "death of child" into the Personal Events field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.
Note: To see a list of available Personal Events terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Personal Events field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.16 Place of Birth (Birth Place)

Description: This field indicates the location of the author's birth, if known. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find people born in a particular place or region. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find authors born in Lithuania.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Lithuania" into the Place of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: To see what Place of Birth terms are available click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Place of Birth field. Use "Not Indicated" to search for occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of birth. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.17 Place of Death (Death Place)

Description: This field indicates the location of the author's death, if known. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who died in a particular place or region. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all authors who died in California.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "california" into the Place of Death field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: To see what Place of Death terms are available click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Place of Death field. Use "Not indicated" to search for occurrences where we have been unable to determine the place of death. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.18 Point of Departure (Embarked for North America from)

Description: This field indicates the city or country where the immigrant departed from in his or her home continent.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who departed from their homeland through a particular city or country. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all Jewish immigrants who left from Hamburg, Germany.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Jewish" into the Cultural Heritage field.
  • Enter "Hamburg, Germany" into the Point of Departure field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the critera.

Note: To find authors, this search can also be done in the Find Authors screen using the Embarked for North America from field.

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5.2.19 Point of Entry (Entered North America)

Description: This field indicates the city where immigrants arrived in North America.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors who entered North America through a specific city, state or region.

Practical Example: Find all occurrences of the Statue of Liberty by authors entering North America through New York City.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Statue of Liberty" into the Search in Texts box.
  • Enter "New York, NY" into the Point of Entry field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.20 Publisher

Description: This field indicates the name of the publisher of the source work.

How to use this field: Use this field to find all source works by a particular publisher. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find sources that were privately printed.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "privately" into the Publisher field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: Publisher names are standardized and may vary from the form of the name that appears on the source's title page.

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5.2.21 Race

Description: This field indicates whether the author was White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Not indicated.

How to use this field: Use this field to find authors of a particular race or races. If you enter "Not indicated" the database will respond with all documents where the race of the author is unknown. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find all Asian authors.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Asian" into the Race field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences.
Note: To see a list of available Race terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Race field.

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5.2.22 Record Number

Description: This is the mandatory, unique identifier for each document in the database. It consists of the source work identifier and the individual document number, in the form: S8550-D001.

How to use this field: This field allows you to go quickly to a specific entry in the entire database. Enter the document number exactly as it appears; the field is case sensitive. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

5.2.23 Religion

Description: This field indicates the religious background or beliefs of the author.

How to use this field: Use this field to analyze the vocabulary, behavior and experiences of a person with particular religious beliefs. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens. Note that terms in this field are standardized in an authority file. "Not Indicated" is used when we have been unable to determine the religion. "Christian" is used where a specific denomination is not known.

Practical Example: Find materials written by Jews that discuss Sunday.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Sunday" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Enter "Jewish" into the Religion field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Religion terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Religion field.

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5.2.24 Source Title

Description: This field indicates the title of a source.

How to use this field: Use this field to narrow a search by a specific source. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find discussions of trains in From Plotzk to Boston.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "trains" into the Search in Texts field.
  • Enter "From Plotzk to Boston" into the Title field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.
Note: To see a list of available Source Title terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Source Title field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.25 Source Type

Description: This field indicates the type of source. Unique sources to this product include Cartoon, Chapter, Diary, Oral history, and Section.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to a specific type of source. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all diaries published by a historical society.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Historical Society" into the Publisher field.
  • Select "Diary" from the Source Type drop-down box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all diaries that meet the criteria.

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5.2.26 Stayed in North America

Description: This field indicates whether an immigrant stayed in North America or returned to his or her native land or some other country.

How to use this field: Use this field to find individuals who either stayed in or left North America. It is used in the Find Authors screen.

Practical Example: Find authors who stayed in this country.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Select "Stayed in North America" from the Stayed in North America drop-down box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

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5.2.27 Subject Headings

Description: This is a composite field consisting of all terms in the Name Subject field, Organization Subject field, Title as Subject field, Topical Subject field, Broad Subject field, Historical Event subject field, and Geographic Subject field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find a wide range of materials, including specific places, people, works of literature, and historical events. It is used in the Simple Search and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find materials that discuss Shakespeare and his works.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Shakespeare" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Practical Example: Find all materials pertaining to Boston.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Boston" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Practical Example: Find all materials pertaining to the theater.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "theater" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Practical Example: Find all materials about the Chinese Revolution of 1911.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Chinese Revolution" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: To see a list of available Subject Headings terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Subject Headings field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.28 Subject Headings (Source)

Description: This field indicates subject headings for sources.

How to use this field: Use this field to search for sources by subject headings. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find sources that deal with immigrant life.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "immigrant life" into the Subject Headings field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.
Note: To see a list of available Subject Headings (Source) terms click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the Subject Headings (Source) field. Be careful to delete any semicolons and replace them with the appropriate Boolean operator.

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5.2.29 Title (Source)

Description: Use this field to find sources by title. It is a mandatory field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources with specific words in the title. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find all sources with autobiography in the title.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "autobiography*" into the Title field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all sources that meet the criteria.

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5.2.30 Where Sent

See 5.2.31 Where Written


5.2.31 Where Written

Description: This field indicates the place where letters or diaries were written. The names are standardized in an authority file. Generally, specific localities will be used (e.g., Boston, MA.), but state or regional locations may also be used. State abbreviations for cities and towns are taken from the Anglo-American Cataloging Rules, Second edition, 1988, and conform to the old-style postal abbreviations.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict a search to materials written in a particular place. It is used in the Advanced Search screen.

Practical Example: Find all diaries written in Massachusetts.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "Massachusetts" into the Where Written field.
  • Select "Diary" from the Source Type drop-down box.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Practical Example: Find all letters sent from California in 1852.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1852" into the Year Written field.
  • Select "Letter" from the Document Type drop-down box.
  • Enter "California" into the Where Written field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Practical Example: Find all letters sent from the West Coast in 1853.

  • Click on Advanced Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1853" into the Year Written field.
  • Select "Letter" from the Document Type drop-down box.
  • Enter "West Coast" into the Where Written field. Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences in context.

Note: To see what Geographical terms are available click on the Terms button. Copy terms that you want and paste them into the box.

Note: In the case of a diary where the location changes over a month, the location indicated is from the beginning of the month.

Note: Regional terms are restricted to the United States and Canada and have been selected based on contemporary (2001) breakdowns (e.g., West (U.S.) refers to California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Most locations are assigned to two or three regions, based on the state (i.e., all cities in the same state will be assigned to the same regions). Regions assigned to a state are not hierarchical.

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5.2.32 Year of Birth

Description: This field indicates the year of the author's birth, if known. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find people born in a particular year or period. It is used in the Find Authors screen.

Practical Example: Find authors born after 1900, but before World War II in Europe.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1900-1939" into the Year of Birth field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: Use "9999" to search for occurrences where we have been unable to determine the year of birth.

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5.2.33 Year of Death

Description: This field indicates the year of the author's death, if known. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find people who died in a particular year or period. It is used in the Find Authors field.

Practical Example: Find all authors who died in the twentieth century before World War I.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1901-1914" into the Year of Death field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all authors that meet the criteria.

Note: Use "9999" to search for occurrences where we have been unable to determine the year of death.

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5.2.34 Year of Immigration

Description: This field indicates the year the author initially immigrated to North America if known. It is an optional Field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find people who immigrated in a particular year or period. It is used in the Find Authors and Advanced Search screens.

Practical Example: Find immigrants who entered North America between 1900 and 1910.

  • Click on Find Authors on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1901-1910" into the Year of Immigration field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

Note: Use "9999" to search for occurrences where we have been unable to determine the year of immigration.

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5.2.35 Year of Publication (Source)

Description: This field indicates the year of the source's publication. It is an optional field.

How to use this field: Use this field to find sources that were published in a particular year or period. It is used in the Find Sources screen.

Practical Example: Find sources published between World War I and U.S. involvement in World War II.

  • Click on Find Sources on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1919-1940" into the Year of Publication field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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5.2.36 Year Written

Description: This field indicates the year in which the letter or diary was written, an interview for an oral history was done, or the original publication date of a chapter. Note: Most sources with chapters are written within a year or two prior to publication.

How to use this field: Use this field to restrict your search to all letters or diary entries written in a particular year or range of years.

Practical Example: Find all letters or diaries written during the American Civil War.

  • Click on Simple Search on the navigation bar.
  • Enter "1861-1865" into the Year Written field.
  • Click on the SEARCH button.
  • The system responds with a list of all occurrences that meet the criteria.

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6. RESULTS

6.1 OCCURRENCES WITH CONTEXT/CONTEXT DISPLAY

Occurrences with Context Display is the default results format option. This report indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences.

Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. (Full entries for the short citations are listed in the Results Bibliography at the bottom of the report.) Along side the citation is listed several levels of context, shown in red in the example below (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


1. Winslow, Harriet Wadsworth Lathrop. "Diary of Harriet Wadsworth Winslow, August, 1814"
[Page 29 | Paragraph | Section | Document]

cordial welcome." 21. --When I reflect on the multitudes of my fellow-creatures who are perishing for lack of vision, and that I am living at ease, without aiding in the promulgation of the Gospel, I am almost ready to wish myself a man, that I might spend my life with the poor heathen. But I check the thought, and would not alter one plan of Infinite wisdom. I could, however, cheerfully endure pain and hardship for them, and for my dear Redeemer. Has he not given his life for multitudes now perishing, as well as for my soul? And Oh, how basely ungrateful and selfish in


  • The citation indicates the original source of the material.
  • Page 29 - indicates the page where the occurrence was found. Pages, whenever possible, refer to the page of the print edition. Click on it to go to the page.
  • Paragraph - indicates the paragraph where the occurrence was found. Click on it to go to the Paragraph.
  • Section - indicates the Section where the occurrence was found. In the case of a letter this is usually the same as the Document, but in the case of a diary this is a day of the month. Click on it to go to it.
  • Document - indicates the entire document (in the case of a diary this is a month of entries). Click to view the whole document.

Below the short citation there is a passage of text consisting of some forty words on either side of the key word, which is highlighted. PhiloLogic, however, displays as much text as needed to capture all words in a multi-term search and all search words are highlighted. The reference listed with the short citation is linked to the text. If clicking on the page number, one retrieves the full page with key words still highlighted. The same is true for paragraph and the three other levels of hierarchy. Links to the previous and next page, paragraph or levels respectively, if they exist, are provided.

Note: Remember that, when searching for two or more terms within the same paragraph, the context display expands the amount of text displayed to include all of the search terms in the paragraph. At times the text displayed in a proximity search to accommodate all the search terms may be several screens in length since some paragraph divisions in documents in some databases are very far apart.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. 908 occurrences have been generated so far. (please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

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6.2 LINE-BY-LINE DISPLAY

The Line-by-Line display indicates the number of texts searched, the search term(s) entered in a defined corpus, and the total number of occurrences found. (The number of occurrences displays at the top of the report if PhiloLogic has detected the number before generating the first 25 occurrences. If not, the total number of occurrences displays at the bottom of the report.) Following this general information is a list of occurrences. Each occurrence is represented by a short citation consisting of abbreviations for the author's name and the title of the work with a reference to where the term(s) in question occur within the document. References (E.g. Bayley:D1266-14) are a concatenation of an Author abbreviation, the document identifier within the database, and the Page Number. The report is followed by the Results Bibliography, wherein you can find a full citation for the References in the report. Here is an example of the Line-by-Line display (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=diary
Searching 1333 documents for scrup.*. Your search found 6 occurrences

Context Display     Sorted by Author     Sorted by Source

1. Morris:D43-3 (p.27)re. Jan. 31st, 1777 The scruples of my own mind being satisfied
2. Kemble:D757-4 (p.251)> time, Mrs.----, less scrupulous and without asking my leave
3. Dawson:D373-9 (p.263)rprise, so we did not scruple to leave Lilly.... The Baton Ro
4. Dawson:D373-6 (p.127) The soldiers did not scruple to laugh at us. Those who were
5. Dawson:D373-8 (p.219)of Charlie, so had no scruples about offering their services;
6. Dawson:D373-8 (p.230)ked because he was so scrupulously neat while the others were


A Line-by-Line Display differs from a Context Report in that it limits the text displayed to only a single line of text. The search term, which is highlighted, is centered in the line so that a user can quickly scan the results. At the bottom of the report one finds the Results Bibliography, which lists the full references for the short citations above. Unlike the Context report, a Line-by-Line Display only offers one level of linked context.

The user may toggle from the Line-by-Line Display to a Context Report or to the results sorted by Author and Sorted by Source.

In cases where a search finds more than 25 occurrences, PhiloLogic provides the first 25 occurrences with links at the bottom of the report to the remaining occurrences of the search in sets of one hundred. One may also retrieve a full list of occurrences which can be useful for down-loading or printing, but which may take some time to retrieve. Note: when results number over hundreds or thousands of occurrences, the report may not be complete when first starting to view results. In this case, one sees the message "The search is still in progress. [908] occurrences have been generated so far. (please follow the link(s) below to check on the progress) ". The server continues to append results until it has completed the entire report and, by clicking on any of the sets of one hundred, one can retrieve the full report.

Note: When executing a "Proximity Search," especially with paragraph set as the searching parameter, it is best to avoid the Line-by-Line format since all search terms are not likely to be in the single line of text displayed. The term that is located first in the paragraph is the one that is centered in the single line of text. Using the Context results format ensures that all terms are included in the display even if the paragraph should happen to run for several pages. One can switch from a Line-by-Line format to a Context Report format at any time while viewing results and switch back. PhiloLogic takes the user to the same set of results being viewed at the time of the switch.

 

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6.3 SORTING RESULTS BY AUTHOR

Results can be sorted using a Sorted by Author report. This report indicates how many times a work occurred in documents by a particular author. To do this choose Frequency by Author at the bottom of the Letter, Diary or Advanced Search screens, or select Sort by Author from the Context or Line-by-Line display.

A Sorted by Author report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by author in descending order of frequency with individual titles listed with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term school.* in the database searches for all these unique terms above). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=diary
Searching 1333 documents for convalesc.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 5

Search Terms: convalescence | convalescent | convalescents | convalescing | Convalescent

Your search found 10 occurrences.


Frequency by Author in descending numeric order:

1. Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, 1801-1893: 8
      2: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, August, 1862  [Occurrences]
      2: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, November, 1861  [Occurrences]
      1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, April, 1863  [Occurrences]
      1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, March, 1863  [Occurrences]
      1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, September, 1862  [Occurrences]
      1: Diary of Abigail Hopper Gibbons, July, 1862  [Occurrences]
2. Winslow, Harriet Wadsworth Lathrop, 1796-1833: 1
      1: Diary of Harriet Wadsworth Winslow, May, 1820  [Occurrences]
3. Cary, Anne M.: 1
      1: Diary of Anne M. Cary, October, 1827  [Occurrences]


Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-Line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to from the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that author's title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

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6.4 SORTING RESULTS BY SOURCE

Results can be sorted using a Sorted by Source report. To do this choose Frequency by Source at the bottom of the Letter, Diary or Advanced Search screens, or click on Sort by Source when in a context display.

This report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term school.* in the database searches for all these unique terms above). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=letter
Searching 1181 documents for measles.
Number of Unique Forms: 2

Search Terms: measles | Measles

Your search found 3 occurrences.


Frequency by Source in descending numeric order:

1. Life of Abby Hopper Gibbons: Told Chiefly through Her Correspondence, vol. 2: 2
      2: Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, 1801-1893 Letter from Abigail Hopper Gibbons to Susan Hopper, June 6, 1863  [Occurrences]
2. Life of Abby Hopper Gibbons: Told Chiefly through Her Correspondence, vol. 1: 1
      1: Gibbons, Abigail Hopper, 1801-1893 Letter from Abigail Hopper Gibbons to Anne Warren Weston and Deborah Weston, March 24, 1841  [Occurrences]


The Frequency by Source Report is useful if one is curious about how frequently an author uses term(s) in one work as compared to his/her other works or in his/her works as compared to others' works.

Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-Line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context Display format. Note: the sets of occurrences linked to from the frequency report are numbered in chronological order, not by frequency. In other words, clicking on the [Occurrences] link for a title at the top of the list could, for example, bring up occurrences numbered 21-28 instead of 1-8 because that title while ranked first in frequency is not first chronologically.

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6.5 SORTING RESULTS BY YEAR (FREQUENCY BY YEAR)

Results can be sorted by using a Frequency by Year report. This report indicates how many times a work occurred in documents in a particular year. To do this choose Frequency by Year at the bottom of the Letter, Diary or Advanced Search screens.

A Frequency by Year report indicates the bibliographic criteria entered, the number of documents searched, the search term(s) entered, the number of unique forms derived from the search term(s) within the database, a list of those unique forms, and the total number of occurrences found in the defined corpus. Following this information, the report indicates the number of occurrences by title in descending order of frequency with a link to the digital table of contents for each title and a link to the occurrences found within that title.

This report also shows what terms within a database one's search criteria are searching (for example, one can discover that entering the search term craft* in the database searches for these unique terms). See below for an example (links to the table of contents and occurrences have been disabled).


Bibliographic criteria: doctype=letter
Searching 1181 documents for craft.*.
Number of Unique Forms: 3

Search Terms: craft | crafty | Crafts

Your search found 10 occurrences.


Frequency by Year in descending numeric order:

1. 1839: 4
      2: Kemble, Frances Anne, 1809-1893 Letter from Frances Anne Kemble to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, 1839  [Occurrences]
      1: Kemble, Frances Anne, 1809-1893 Letter from Frances Anne Kemble to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, 1839  [Occurrences]
      1: Kemble, Frances Anne, 1809-1893 Letter from Frances Anne Kemble to Elizabeth Dwight Sedgwick, February, 1839  [Occurrences]
2. 1840: 3
      1: Steele, Eliza R. Stansbury Letter from Eliza R. Steele, July 12, 1840  [Occurrences]
      1: Steele, Eliza R. Stansbury Letter from Eliza R. Steele, July 11, 1840  [Occurrences]
      1: Steele, Eliza R. Stansbury Letter from Eliza R. Steele, June 14, 1840  [Occurrences]
3. 1830: 2
      1: Willard, Emma Hart, 1787-1870 Letter from Emma Hart Willard, December 8, 1830  [Occurrences]
      1: Willard, Emma Hart, 1787-1870 Letter from Emma Hart Willard to Almira H. Phelps, December 2, 1830  [Occurrences]
4. 1831: 1
      1: Willard, Emma Hart, 1787-1870 Letter from Emma Hart Willard, February 14, 1831  [Occurrences]


The Sorted by Year Report is useful if one is curious about how frequently a word appears over time. Any definable corpus or search can be used in generating this report. Unlike Context Display and Line-by-Line reports, this report does not display text, only frequency statistics with links to occurrences displayed in Context Display format.

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6.6 NAVIGATING DOCUMENTS FROM WORD SEARCHES

In Context Display one finds several options for viewing more context around one's matched term(s). In addition to "page" and paragraph, you'll section and page. These divisions reflect the logical organization of the document from smaller parts (paragraph) to larger parts document. What each level represents depends upon the text itself.

Each letter is considered to be a document, no matter how long it is. A diary is divided into paragraphs, sections (typically a day), and documents (a month of entries). For diaries with short entries you will find it easiest to view the full document. For diaries with longer entries you will find it easiest to view section by section.

Any part of any level may be selected by simply clicking on it. Once a user goes to a second level of context, he/she will find the search term(s) still highlighted. One may also find the next and previous sections for each level if one should wish to "flip through" the document by sections (provided that a next or previous section exists for a given level).

Notes: In PhiloLogic notes never interfere when searching the text to which they refer. Note references are linked to notes and occurrences in text from notes are linked to page references. Note and page references can be found on any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

Images: Images are displayed as both inline images and linked to images once the user pulls up any level of context (e.g., Page, Paragraph, Section, Document), but not from a first-level results screen.

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